CFR NPRM

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[Federal Register: October 29, 1963]
[Page 11507]

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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Federal Aviation Agency
14 CFR Parts 25
[Docket No. 2033; Notice No. 63-42]


Regulations, Procedures, and Equipment for Passenger Emergency Evacuation; Flight Attendants; and Assignment of Emergency Evacuation Functions for Crewmembers

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Federal Aviation Agency, DOT
ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking


14 CFR Parts 4b, 40, 41, 42

SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Agency has under consideration a proposal to amend Parts 4b, 40, 41, and Revised 42 of the Civil Air Regulations as hereinafter set forth to provide for improvement in emergency evacuation equipment and procedures for passenger-carrying aircraft.
DATES: Comments on this notice must be received on or before January 13, 1964.


SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

It is proposed to amend Parts 4b, 40, 41, and Revised 42 by prescribing: (1) Revised and new standards for emergency-exit-locating signs, for emergency exit door-opening instructions, for emergency passenger cabin illumination after a crash landing, and for exterior marking of emergency exits; (2) strength requirements for latches designed to keep interior doors in the open position; and (3) the fitting of ropes at Type III and Type IV exits to facilitate emergency egress.

In addition, it is proposed to amend Parts 40, 41, and Revised 42 in such a manner as to: (1) Require air carriers and commercial operators using large airplanes to physically demonstrate the adequacy of the procedures established for passenger emergency evacuation on each type of airplane used in passenger-carrying operations; (2) require one portable battery-powered megaphone as a part of the basic emergency equipment on all passenger-carrying airplanes having a seating capacity of more than 60 passengers when engaged in passenger-carrying operations; (3) require an oral briefing of the passengers on board the airplane relative to the location of all emergency exits; (4) amend the rule pertaining to the number of flight attendants required on large airplanes carrying more than 10 passengers; and (5) require the air carriers to establish emergency duties and function for each type of airplane they use and for each category of crewmember.

Interested persons are invited to participate in the making of the proposed rule by submitting such written data, view, or arguments as they may desire. Communications should identify the notice or docket number and be submitted in duplicate to the Federal Aviation Agency, Office of the General Counsel: Attention Rules Docket, 1711 New York Avenue NW., Washington, D.C., 20553. All communications received on or before January 13, 1964, will be considered by the Administrator before taking action upon the proposed rule. The proposals contained in this notice may be changed in the light of comments received. All comments submitted will be available, both before and after the closing date for comments, in the Rules Docket for examination by interested persons.

Currently effective Sec. 4b.362 prescribes that the crew and passenger compartments of transport category airplanes be provided with emergency evacuation means, to permit rapid egress in the event of crash landings, taking into account the possibility that the airplane might be on fire. Detailed provisions in this section deal with the number, size, arrangement, and marking of emergency exits and with the access to them.

In the course of its participation in the investigation of a number of crash landings involving transport category airplanes, the Agency has noted that a number of difficulties and delays were encountered in evacuating the airplane, raising the question whether emergency evacuation facilities on modern transport category airplanes, installed in compliance with currently effective regulations, provide an adequate level of safety. To resolve this question, the Agency undertook a broad study of current transport cabin interiors, including detailed inspections of airplanes now in service, and found that significant improvements in the provisions for emergency evacuation were reasonably attainable to provide that level of safety. These finding were discussed with representatives of the airline industry at several conferences convened by the Agency with the result that a number of attainable improvements are being made voluntarily on many transport category airplanes.

While some airlines have taken voluntary steps to improve emergency evacuation facilities in their airplanes, the Agency considers it necessary to insure, by suitable regulatory action, that all type certificated transport category airplanes are fitted with these, as well as other attainable improvements in emergency evacuation provisions, as discussed in paragraphs (1) through (6) which follow:

(1) Emergency-exit-locating signs. Currently effective Sec. 4b.362(f)(1) prescribes that all emergency exits be marked conspicuously, and that their identity and location be recognizable from a distance equal to the width of the cabin. The Agency believes that if emergency exits were recognizable from greater distances, and if class dividers (which separate first class from tourist passenger compartments) or other passenger cabin dividers or bulkheads were marked to call attention to emergency exits located beyond them but not in view, a more efficient use of available emergency exits in crash landings would result. It is proposed, therefore, to amend Sec. 4b.362(f) to require that signs, visible to passengers approaching along the main passenger aisle, be placed: (a) Above the main passenger aisle near each passenger over-wing emergency exit, and adjacent to each passenger floor-level emergency exit, calling attention to each such exit; and (b) on each passenger cabin divider, calling attention to emergency exits that are located beyond the divider but are not in view. To insure that these signs are effective after day or night crash landings, it is proposed to further amend Sec. 4b.362(f) by prescribing minimum standards dealing with their color, letter size, and emergency illumination

(2) Door-opening instructions for Type I and Type II emergency exits. Currently effective Sec. 4b.362(f)(1) requires that the means for opening emergency exits be marked conspicuously and that instructions for opening the emergency exit be readable from a distance of 30 inches. In the course of its inspections of Type I and Type II emergency exits in transport category airplanes, the Agency found that the door-opening instructions, although visible from 30 inches, were not large enough to permit quick reading in an emergency. In other cases, the door-opening instructions were incomplete; the door could not be opened by following the instructions. To insure that adequate door-opening instructions are provided it is proposed to amend Sec. 4b.362(f) to prescribe specific standards for the design of door-opening instructions for use on Type I and Type II emergency exits.

(3) Exterior markings for emergency exits. Currently effective Sec. 4b.362(e)(2) requires that emergency exits (other than sliding window emergency exits in the flight crew area) be openable from the outside; and currently effective Sec. 4b.362(f)(3) requires that such emergency exits be marked on the outside for guidance of rescue personnel. The marking requirement does not specify in what manner the exit is to be marked to attain the stated objective. Agency representatives examined the exterior markings for emergency exits on transport category airplanes now in service and found that, in general, they were not sufficiently conspicuous for quick recognition by rescue personnel. To insure that appropriately conspicuous markings are provided, it is proposed to amend Sec. 4b.362(f) by prescribing that a 2-inch band, in a color contrasting sufficiently with the surrounding fuselage paint, be marked along the periphery of those emergency exits which are openable from the outside.

(4) Emergency general illumination for the passenger compartment. Currently effective Sec. 4b.362(f)(2) requires that an emergency source of light be provided to illuminate all passenger emergency exit markings in a crash landing. Emergency general illumination for the passenger compartment is not prescribed. The Agency has noted that emergency lighting designed to illuminate exit markings in most cases does not illuminate the passenger compartment area between emergency exits. Lack of such illumination in the crash landing situation tends to slow down passengers on their way to emergency exits, since the aisle may be cluttered with clothes or accessories thrown from the overhead racks, or passage obstructed by broken seats, damaged flooring, or jagged protruding structure. Further, lack of general illumination makes it difficult for passengers to extricate or assist fellow passengers in the emergency. For these reasons, the Agency believes that a reasonable level of general illumination for the passenger compartment would facilitate emergency evacuation and thereby contribute to safety. Accordingly, it is proposed to amend Sec. 4b.362(f) by prescribing standards for emergency general illumination of the passenger compartment.

(5) Strength of passageway-door latches. Currently effective Sec. 4b.362(g) states, in part, that if it is necessary to pass through a doorway to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in the passenger cabin, the door shall be provided with a means to latch it in the open position, and a placard shall be installed stating that the door is to be latched in the open position during takeoff and landing. The Agency has received reports that in a number of crash landings, and even in some hard normal landings, the door latch failed and the door did not remain open. To insure that doors in the path to emergency exits remain open for rapid egress in crash landings, it is proposed to amend Sec. 4b.362(g) to require that the latch on such doors withstand the loads imposed when the door is subjected to the ultimate inertia forces, relative to the surrounding structure, listed in currently effective Sec. 4b.260(a). The Agency believes, however, that doors in partitions between individual passenger compartments, even when equipped with latches designed to withstand the ultimate inertia forces prescribed in Sec. 4b.260(a), may be hazardous, since such doors may be closed inadvertently. Accordingly, it is proposed to prohibit doors in the partition between individual compartments in the passenger area, except that curtains may be used if they permit free passage through the partitions.

(6) Ropes at Type III and Type IV emergency exits. Currently effective Sec. 4b.362(e)(7) requires, for all emergency exits (other than those over the wing) which are more than 6 feet from the ground when the airplane rests on the ground with the landing gear extended, an approved means to assist the occupants in descending to the ground. Currently effective Sec. 4b.362-4 states, in part, that ropes are acceptable for this purpose in the case of crew emergency exits. Over-wing emergency exits were excepted from the requirement for a means to assist occupants in descending to the ground on the assumption that to the ground on the assumption that occupants leaving over-wing emergency exits would step out on the wing and make their way easily to the ground. A number of evacuation tests, witnessed by representatives of the Agency, have indicated that this assumption is not necessarily valid. The descent from the wings of modern transport airplanes is often difficult for the average passenger. The curvature of the wing surface, particularly the wing-fuselage fillets, makes for unsure footing; and even this footing is lost if the wing surface is slippery for any reason. It is proposed therefore, to amend Sec. 4b.362(e)(7) by requiring that a means to assist occupants in descent to the ground be provided at all over-wing emergency exits, and by stating that ropes may be used for this purpose if they comply with specified design standards dealing with strength, attachment location, and rope length. In addition, it is proposed to incorporate the substantive portions of Sec. 4b.362-4 within Sec. 4b.362(e)(7) without change.

In addition to the regulatory action that is proposed for Part 4b, the Agency proposes to include similar requirements in Parts 40, 41, and Revised 42 in order to provide the same safety standards to the public when flying in presently certificated transport category airplanes being operated by air carriers and commercial operators.

The procedures and equipment used for passenger emergency evacuation, assignment of flight attendants and emergency evacuation functions for crewmembers are discussed in paragraphs (7) through (12) which follow:

(7) Demonstrations of emergency evacuation procedures. Recently, the Agency observed several simulated passenger emergency evacuation demonstrations which were conducted by various air carriers using different types of airplanes. The time required to accomplish each of these demonstrations varied from 131 seconds to 213 seconds using from 178 to 189 persons. In all instances, it was evident that a more realistic assignment of functions within the cabin would have resulted in a lesser time to evacuate the airplane satisfactorily. From these demonstrations, it has been concluded that a physical demonstration of an air carrier's ability to execute its established emergency evacuation procedures within a specific time period is necessary in the interest of safety and to insure a more realistic assignment of functions which, in turn, will result in satisfactory accomplishment of emergency evacuation procedures.

Studies of airplane accidents resulting in fire also indicate that an airplane can be consumed by fire in a very brief period. In the event of a fire, only the exits on the side of the airplane away from the fire may be available for emergency evacuation. In addition, after a crash landing, with no airplane main system electrical power for illumination and with the resultant dust and debris filling the cabin, visibility is at a minimum. Not all emergency or crash landings result in a fire, but the possibility of a fire always exists thereby making it most important to evacuate the airplane as rapidly as possible.

In determining an equitable time factor applicable to all accidents requiring emergency evacuation of the airplane, the Agency recognizes there are many variables which can have a direct effect on the success of the evacuation. However, in order to assist the air carriers in having a means by which they can establish and subsequently measure their ability to execute the evacuation procedures, the Agency proposes that a time factor of 2 minutes to evacuate the airplane be specified

Since it is obviously impossible for an air carrier to demonstrate the adequacy of its emergency evacuation procedures and functions under all possible emergency conditions, it is proposed that the carrier simulate a critical condition for a survivable accident which might be encountered in actual operations. This shall be accomplished by demonstrating evacuation of the airplane during hours of darkness, or simulated hours of darkness, within 2 minutes, utilizing 100 percent seating capacity and all the emergency exits on one side of the airplane only. Normally, such timed demonstrations need only be accomplished by the air carrier on a one-time basis on each type of airplane that it now uses, and when any of the following occur: (a) Initial introduction of the airplane into passenger-carrying operations; (b) any proposed increase in passenger seating capacity over that previously approved; or (c) a change affecting cabin interior configuration.

While it is desirable that a representative cross-section of passengers, i.e., men, women, children, babes-in-arms, obese, and aged persons, be used in such demonstrations, the Agency recognizes the difficulty in gathering such a group of persons together and will grant the air carrier the prerogative of selecting the persons who will serve as passengers for the purpose of such demonstration. However, the demonstration must be conducted with a regular line crew.

In cases where the air carrier cannot satisfactorily demonstrate passenger emergency evacuation of a particular type of airplane within the specified 2-minute time limit, the air carrier will be required to accomplish any or all of the following as may be required to demonstrate satisfactory evacuation: (a) It shall modify the airplane cabin interior arrangement; (b) it shall modify the airplane emergency evacuation procedures and crew training procedures; (c) it shall reduce the total passenger seating capacity of the airplane.

(8) Megaphones. Recent surveys of both actual and simulated airplane emergency evacuations also indicated that there is a need for an emergency means of communications between the crewmembers and passengers after an accident has occurred. In certain instances, this lack of adequate communications has been contributory to increasing the fatality rate in otherwise survivable accidents. Experience has shown that, immediately after an accident has occurred, there is a considerable amount of confusion resulting from the sudden disorderliness of the cabin, flying debris, lack of adequate lighting, lack of orientation, and fear. Under such conditions, it would be very easy for the passengers to panic unless proper action is taken by trained crewmembers in directing their actions.

At the present time, crewmembers directing passenger emergency evacuation rely on shouting necessary instructions to the passengers. While this was considered adequate on smaller airplanes with a seating capacity of 60 or less passengers, such communications are inadequate on the modern large airplane unless supplemented by some additional means such as a battery-powered megaphone. This is due to the great length, width, compartmentation, and increased passenger-carrying capacity of such airplanes. A battery-powered megaphone would enable the crewmembers directing emergency evacuation to be heard throughout the entire length of the airplane over the various noises associated with a crash landing. Therefore, it is proposed that one portable battery-powered megaphone be made part of the basic emergency equipment required on all passenger-carrying airplanes having a seating capacity of more than 60 but less than 100 passengers, and that two portable battery-powered megaphones, in an approved location, be made a part of the equipment for all passenger-carrying airplanes having a seating capacity of 100 or more passengers. Such equipment, when stowed in the airplane, should be readily accessible to the crewmembers assigned the duty of directing passenger emergency evacuation.

(9) Flight attendants. Section 41.265 of Revised Part 41 requires the assignment of flight attendants based upon the seating capacity of the airplane. The Agency now believes that the desired results can be accomplished by deleting the present requirements as established in Sec. 41.265 and substituting in lieu thereof basic requirements similar to those contained in Sec. 40.265 which have been in effect since 1952 and which require at least one flight attendant on all passenger-carrying airplanes of 10-passenger capacity or more. However, the Agency proposes to further amend Sec. 40.265 to require additional flight attendants, as determined necessary to comply with the amended provisions of Sec. 40.267 Assignment of emergency evacuation functions for each crewmember.

(10) Assignment of emergency evacuation functions for each crewmember. The Agency proposes that Sec. 40.267 be clarified to specifically indicate, by assignment of emergency duties and functions for each crewmember, for each type of airplane used by the air carrier, the additional number of flight attendants which would be required on large airplanes carrying in excess of 10 passengers. In light of the above, the Agency proposes to amend Sec. 40.267 by requiring the establishment and approval of crewmember emergency evacuation duties and functions for each type of airplane used by the air carrier taking into consideration the configuration or compartmentation of the airplane. In addition, it is also proposed to require that the emergency duties and functions for each category of crewmember be established, approved, and incorporated into the Air Carrier Manual.

(11) Briefing of passengers. With regard to passenger briefing, the Civil Air Regulations now require in certain instances that passengers be briefed concerning the use of oxygen equipment, and, in the case of extended overwater flights, be also briefed on the location and use of the emergency life-saving equipment. On extended overwater flights, the briefing also includes advising the passengers as to the location of the emergency exits. Although the emergency exits and their attendant operating instructions are placarded, the joint Agency/Industry Committee, which studied this matter, was of the opinion that the placards were in themselves not readily observable or sufficiently conspicuous. While placarding of the emergency exits is very helpful, some passengers still may not note the location of the exits unless they are physically pointed out or otherwise described. Certain air carriers, recognizing this, have developed printed cards which set forth specific information including the location of the emergency exits and emergency evacuation procedures. These printed cards are placed at each passenger seat within the cabin. Experience has shown that, while some of the passengers may never read these cards, the majority do read them at some time during the course of their flight.

While the cards are considered excellent information sources and their further use should be encouraged, some primary method must be devised whereby the passengers are made positively aware of the cards and of the location of the emergency exits. One method by which this can be accomplished is for a qualified attendant to brief the passengers on the location of all the emergency exits in the course of each passenger briefing either through actual demonstration or through actual use of the cards. This would not only serve to make all the passengers aware of the location of the emergency exits but would insure that it was accomplished prior to each takeoff. Therefore, it is proposed herein to require the cabin attendant to brief the passengers on the location of all the emergency exits on the airplane during the course of briefing the passengers prior to the initial takeoff and each subsequent takeoff when additional passengers board the airplane.

In addition to the proposed amendments previously discussed, it is proposed to make various nonsubstantive editorial revisions for clarification.

This proposal is subject to the FAA Recodification Program announced in Draft Release 61-25 (26 F.R. 10698). The final rule, if adopted, may be in recodified form; however, the recodification itself will not alter the substantive contents proposed herein.


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The Proposed Amendment: In consideration of the foregoing, it is proposed to amend Parts 4b, 40, 41, and Revised 42 of the Civil Air Regulations as hereinafter set forth:

1. By amending Sec. 4b.362(e)(7), (f), and (g) of Part 4b to read as follows:

Sec. 4b.362 Emergency evacuation.
* * * * *

(e) Emergency exit arrangement. * * *

(7) Means shall be provided, at all landplane emergency exits located over the wings and at all other landplane emergency exits if they are more than 6 feet from the ground when the airplane is on the ground with landing gear extended, to assist the occupants in descending to the ground. For crew emergency exits, and for passenger emergency exits located over the wings, the assisting means may be a rope. If the assisting means is a rope, it shall be attached to the fuselage structure at or above the upper limit of the emergency exit opening; both the rope and its attachment shall be capable of withstanding a 400-pound static load; and, in the case of
emergency exits located over the wings, the rope shall be long enough to permit descent over both the leading and trailing edge of the wing. For passenger floor-level emergency exits, the assisting means may be a slide or other means or device that meets the provisions of Sec. 4b.362-4.
* * * * *

(f) Emergency exit marking. (1) All passenger emergency exits, their means of access, and their means of opening shall be marked conspicuously. The location of the emergency exit operating handle and the instructions for opening shall be marked on or adjacent to the emergency exit and shall be readable from a distance of 30 inches. In addition, for all Type I and II emergency exits, the action required to release the locking mechanism shall be indicated by a red arrow having a shaft at least 3/4 of an inch in width, and a head twice as wide as the shaft. The word "open", in one-inch high red letters, shall be marked horizontally near the head of the arrow. If the locking mechanism is released by the rotary motion of a handle, the arrow shall extend along at least 70 degrees of arc at a radius approximately equal to three quarters of the handle length.

(2) The identity and location of all passenger emergency exits shall be recognizable from a distance equal to the width of the cabin. In addition, emergency-exit-locating signs visible to occupants approaching along the main passenger aisle shall be placed: above the main passenger aisle near over-wing passenger emergency exits, and adjacent to each passenger floor-level emergency exit, calling attention to each such exit; and on each bulkhead or divider which cuts off fore-aft vision along the passenger cabin, to call attention to passenger emergency exits which are located beyond such bulkheads or dividers. These emergency-exit-locating signs shall consist of one-inch high white letters on a two-inch high red background, except that the colors may be reversed if the sign, by reason of internal sources of light, contributes to the general emergency illumination of the passenger compartment. These exit and exit-locating signs (self or electrically illuminated) shall have a minimum luminescence (brightness) of at least 160 microlamberts.

(3) A source of sources of light, with an energy supply independent of the main lighting system, shall be installed to illuminate all passenger emergency exit markings and emergency-exit-locating signs and to provide enough general lighting in the passenger cabin that the illumination on the surface of any seat arm rest along the main passenger aisle is at least 0.05 foot-candles. The light shall be designed to function automatically in a crash landing and shall also be operable manually.

(4) All emergency exits which are required to be openable from the outside, and their means of opening, shall be marked on the outside of the airplane for guidance of rescue personnel. The outline of each emergency exit shall be marked on the outside of the airplane with a two-inch colored band. The color contrast between the band and the surrounding fuselage surface shall be such that the reflectance of the lighter color exceeds the reflectance of the darker color by a factor of three or more.

NOTE: Reflectance is defined as the ratio of the luminous flux reflected by a body to the luminous flux it receives.

(g) Emergency exit access. Passageways between individual compartments of the passenger area and passageways leading to Type I and Type II emergency exits (see paragraph (b) of this section) shall be unobstructed and shall be no less than 20 inches wide. Sufficient additional space shall be provided adjacent to emergency exits for which assisting means are required by paragraph (e)(7) of this section, except those located over the wings, to allow a crewmember to assist in the evacuation of passengers without reduction in the unobstructed width of the passageway to such exit. Access shall be provided from the main aisle to all Type III and Type IV exits and such access shall not be obstructed by seats, berths, or other protrusions to an extent which would reduce the effectiveness of the exit, except that minor obstructions will be permissible if the Administrator finds that compensating factors are present to maintain the effectiveness of the exit. However, obstructions to any doorway between individual passenger compartments will not be permissible if it is necessary to pass through the doorway to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in any other passenger compartment. Doors shall not be installed in any partition separating passenger compartments. Curtains may be used provided they permit free entry through the doorway. If it is necessary to pass through any other doorway separating the passenger compartment from other areas of the airplane to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in the passenger cabin, the door shall be provided with a means to latch it in the open position, and such latching means shall be capable of withstanding the loads imposed upon it when the door is subjected to the ultimate inertia forces relative to the surrounding structure, listed in Sec. 4b.260(a). A suitable placard stating that the door is to be latched in the open position during takeoff and landing shall be installed.
* * * * *

2. By amending Part 40 by adding a new center heading and a new Sec. 40.40 to read as follows:

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

Sec. 40.40 Air carrier demonstration of emergency evacuation procedures.

(a) Each air carrier shall show by actual demonstration that the emergency evacuation procedures established for each type of airplane used in its passenger-carrying operations will result in evacuating that type of airplane in 2 minutes or less. This demonstration shall be made during or simulate the hours of darkness, utilizing 100 percent seating capacity and only the emergency exits on one side of the airplane.

(b) Normally, such timed demonstrations shall be accomplished by the air carrier on a one-time basis on each type of airplane that it currently uses and whenever one of the following occurs:

(1) Initial introduction of the airplane into passenger-carrying operations;
(2) Any proposed increase in passenger seating capacity over that previously approved; or
(3) A major change affecting the passenger cabin interior configuration.

(c) In lieu of passengers, the air carrier may utilize its company personnel for each such demonstration, but must use a regular line crew. In cases where the air carrier cannot satisfactorily demonstrate passenger emergency evacuation of a particular type of airplane within the specified 2-minute time limit, the air carrier shall do any or all of the following as may be required to demonstrate satisfactory evacuation:

(1) It shall modify the airplane cabin interior arrangement;
(2) It shall modify the airplane emergency evacuation procedures and crew training procedures;
(3) It shall reduce the total passenger seating capacity of the airplane.
3. By amending Sec. 40.173 by revising paragraphs (e) and (f), and by adding new paragraphs (g) and (h) to read as follows:

Sec. 40.173 Emergency equipment for all operations.
* * * * *

(e) Means for emergency evacuation. After July 1, 1964, on all passenger-carrying landplanes, means shall be provided, at all emergency exits located over the wings and at all other emergency exits if they are more than 6 feet from the ground when the airplane is on the ground with landing gear extended, to assist the occupants in descending to the ground. For crew emergency exits, and for passenger emergency exits located over the wings, the assisting means may be a rope. If the assisting means is a rope, it shall be attached to the fuselage structure at or above the upper limit of the emergency exit opening; both the rope and its attachment shall be capable of withstanding a 400-pound static load; and, in the case of emergency exits located over the wings, the rope shall be long enough to permit descent over both the leading and trailing edge of the wing. For passenger floor-level emergency exits, the assisting means may be a slide or other means or device that meets the provisions of Sec. 4b.362-4. During flight time this means shall be in a position ready for use.

(f) Emergency exit marking. (1) After July 1, 1964, all passenger emergency exits, their means of access, and their means of opening shall be marked conspicuously. The location of the emergency exit operating handle and the instructions for opening shall be marked on or adjacent to the emergency exit and shall be readable from a distance of 30 inches. In addition, for all Type I and Type II emergency exits, the action required to release the locking mechanism shall be indicated by a red arrow having a shaft at least 3/4 of an inch in width, and a head twice as wide as the shaft. The word "open", in one-inch high red letters, shall be marked horizontally near the head of the arrow. If the locking mechanism is released by the rotary motion of a handle, the arrow shall extend along at least 70 degrees of arc at a radius approximately equal to three quarters of the handle length.

(2) The identity and location of all passenger emergency exits shall be recognizable from a distance equal to the width of the cabin. In addition, emergency-exit-locating signs visible to occupants approaching along the main passenger aisle shall be placed: above the main passenger aisle near over-wing passenger emergency exits, and adjacent to each passenger floor-level emergency exit, calling attention to each such exit; and on each bulkhead or divider which cuts off fore-aft vision along the passenger cabin, to call attention to passenger emergency exits which are located beyond such bulkheads or dividers. These emergency-exit-locating signs shall consist of one-inch high white letters on a two-inch high red background, except that the colors may be reversed if the sign, by reason of internal sources of light, contributes to the general emergency illumination of the passenger compartment. These exit and exit-locating signs (self or electrically illuminated) shall have a minimum luminescence (brightness) of at least 160 microlamberts.

(3) A source of sources of light, with an energy supply independent of the main lighting system, shall be installed to illuminate all passenger emergency exit markings and emergency-exit-locating signs and to provide enough general lighting in the passenger cabin that the illumination on the surface of any seat arm rest along the main passenger aisle is at least 0.05 foot-candles. The lights shall be designed to function automatically in a crash landing and shall also be operable manually. When the lights require arming of the system to function automatically, the system shall be armed prior to each takeoff and landing.

(g) Emergency exit access. Passageways between individual compartments of the passenger area and passageways leading to Type I and Type II emergency exits shall be unobstructed and shall be no less than 20 inches wide. Sufficient additional space shall be provided adjacent to emergency exits for which assisting means are required by paragraph (e) of this section, except those located over the wings, to allow a crewmember to assist in the evacuation of passengers without reduction in the unobstructed width of the passageway to such exit. Access shall be provided from the main aisle to all Type III and Type IV exits and such access shall not be obstructed by seats, berths, or other protrusions to an extent which would reduce the effectiveness of the exit, except that minor obstructions will be permissible if the Administrator finds that compensating factors are present to maintain the effectiveness of the exit. However, obstructions to any doorway between individual passenger compartments will not be permissible if it is necessary to pass through the doorway to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in any other passenger compartment. Doors shall not be installed in any partition separating passenger compartments. Curtains may be used provided they permit free entry through the doorway. If it is necessary to pass through any other doorway separating the passenger compartment from other areas of the airplane to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in the passenger cabin, the door shall be provided with a means to latch it in the open position, and such latching means shall be capable of withstanding the loads imposed upon it when the door is subjected to the ultimate inertia forces, relative to the surrounding structure, listed in Sec. 4b.260(a). A suitable placard stating that the door is to be latched in the open position during takeoff and landing shall be installed.

(h) Megaphones. On all passenger-carrying airplanes having a seating capacity of more than 60, but less than 100, passengers, there shall be installed one portable battery-powered megaphone as part of the basic emergency equipment, and, on all passenger-carrying airplanes having a seating capacity of 100 or more passengers, there shall be installed two such megaphones as a part of such equipment. Each megaphone shall be installed in an approved location in the cabin in such a manner that it will be readily accessible to the crewmember assigned the duty of directing emergency evacuation of the airplane.

4. By amending Sec. 40.178 to read as follows:

Sec. 40.178 Exterior exit and evacuation markings for all operations.

All required emergency exits which are openable from the outside, and their means of opening, shall be marked on the outside of the airplane for guidance of rescue personnel. The outline of each such emergency exit shall be marked on the outside of the airplane with a two-inch colored band. The color contrast between the band and the surrounding fuselage surface shall be such that the reflectance of the lighter color exceeds the reflectance of the darker color by a factor of three or more.

Note: Reflectance is defined as the ratio of the luminous flux reflected by a body to the luminous flux it receives.

5. By amending Sec. 40.265 to read as follows:

Sec. 40.265 Flight attendant.

At least one flight attendant shall be provided by the air carrier on all flights carrying passengers in airplanes of 10-passenger capacity or more. Additional flight attendants, as determined necessary by the Administrator to comply with the provisions of Sec. 40.267, shall also be provided.

6. By amending Sec. 40.267 to read as follows:

Sec. 40.267 Assignment of emergency evacuation functions for crewmembers.

(a) Crewmember emergency evacuation duties and functions shall be established and approved and assigned to the appropriate crewmember, for each type of airplane used by the air carrier taking into consideration the configuration or compartmentation of the airplane. These duties and functions shall be set forth in the Air Carrier Manual.
(b) Emergency evacuation duties and functions for each category of crewmember shall be established, approved, and set forth in the Air Carrier Manual.
(c) The air carrier shall assign to each crewmember duties and functions to e performed in emergencies and circumstances requiring emergency evacuation. Such duties and functions shall be assigned for each type of airplane used by the air carrier. In the assignment of these duties and functions, consideration shall be given to the possibility that the flight crewmembers may not have access to the passenger cabin due to the possible shifting of the cargo in combination cargo-passenger airplanes.
(d) The air carrier shall show that the assigned duties and functions required by this section are realistic and capable of accomplishment, and will satisfactorily cope with any reasonably anticipated emergencies, including the emergency evacuation requirements of Sec. 40.40.
(e) The air carrier shall show that each crewmember is given adequate training in, and executes each of, the assigned emergency duties and functions in the category assigned during the approved training program prescribed in Sec. 40.286.

7. By amending Sec. 40.370 to read as follows:

Sec. 40.370 Briefing of passengers.

(a) Prior to the initial takeoff and each subsequent takeoff when additional passengers board the airplane, each air carrier engaged in passenger-carrying operations shall insure that all passengers carried on the airplane are orally briefed concerning smoking, use of seat belts, and the location of the emergency exits. The procedure to be followed in briefing the passengers shall be described in the Air Carrier Manual.
(b) Where an air carrier engages in extended overwater operations, it shall also insure that all the passengers are orally briefed concerning the location and method of operation of the life preservers and the liferafts. The procedure to be followed in presenting this briefing shall be described in the Air Carrier Manual. Such briefing shall include a demonstration of the method of donning and inflating the life preserver. Where the airplane proceeds directly over water after takeoff, the briefing on the location and operation of the life preservers and liferafts shall be accomplished prior to takeoff. In any event, the briefing must be accomplished prior to reaching the overwater portion of the flight.

8. By promulgating amendments to Part 41 and Revised Part 42 (28 F.R. 7124, effective November 11, 1963) for the air carriers and commercial operators operating large aircraft under provisions of these parts similar to those proposed in items 3 through 7 above.

These amendments are proposed under the authority of sections 313(a), 601, 603, and 604 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 752, 775, 776, 778; 49 U.S.C. 1354, 1421, 1423, 1424).

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Issued in Washington, DC, on October 23, 1963.
W. Lloyd Lane,
Acting Director, Flight Standards Service.
[FR Doc. 63-11351 Filed 10-28-63; 8:45 am]



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Other Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Actions:
Not Applicable.

Final Rule Actions:
Final Rule. Docket No. 2033; Issued on 03/03/65.